Lesson 5

Endings of strong feminine nouns
N -a -os
A -a -os
G -os -o
D -ai -om

The feminine definite article and demonstrative pronoun: so
N so thos
A tho thos
G thizos thizo
D thizai thaim

Example: so razda the language
N so razda thos razdos
A tho razda thos razdos
G thizos razdos thizo razdo
D thizai razdai thaim razdom

Some strong feminine nouns:

so ahwa: the river (cf. Latin aqua “water”)
so airtha: the earth
so boka: the letter (of the alphabet) (cf. English “book”)
thos bokos: the letters; also the book or the letter (sent from one person to another, epistle)
so bota: the advantage (cf. archaic English “boot”)
so fijathwa: the hatred (cf. fi-end, originally meaning enemy)
so frijathwa: the love (cf. fri-end)
so giba: the gift
so graba: the ditch (cf. “grave”)
so hairda: the herd
so halja: the hell
so hweila: the time (cf. “while”)
so kara: the care
so karkara: the prison (from Latin; cf. in-carcer-ate)
so mulda: the dust (cf. “mould”)
so nethla: the needle
so runa: the mystery (cf. “rune”)
so saiwala: the soul
so saurga: the sorrow
so sibja: the (family) relationship (cf. sib-ling; the name of the Norse goddess Sif is also cognate)
so stibna: the voice (cf. archaic English “steven”, Old English stefn)
so sunja: the truth (this word is, strangely enough, cognate to English “sin”; but in origin it is related to ist, sijum and sind, and means “that which is”)
so thiuda: the people (Old English theod; German deut-sch would be in Gothic *thiud-isks “popular, national, ‘vulgar’”; the name-element Diet- is also equivalent, e.g. in Dietrich = Thiudareiks, Dietmar = Thiudamers)
so triggwa: the covenant (cf. English true, troth); here -ggw- is pronounced as it is spelled, not *tringwa
so wamba: the womb

The feminine personal pronoun

si she (cf. German sie)
N si “she” ijos “they” (feminine)
A ija “her” ijos “them” (feminine)
G izos “(of) her” izo “their” (feminine)
D izai “to her” im “to them” (feminine)

Weak feminine nouns:

Weak feminine nouns ending in -o:
N -o -ons
A -on -ons
G -ons -ono
D -on -on

These are very close to the forms of the masculine, and can in fact be derived from them by substituting o for a, i, or e in the endings of the masculine (this results in the confusion of the accusative and dative singular in -on, which are distinguished in the masculine as -an, -in).

Weak feminine nouns ending in -ei
N -ei -eins
A -ein -eins
G -eins -eino
D -ein -eim

These are the same as the weak feminines ending in -o, but substitute EI for O everywhere except in the last vowel of the genitive plural.

Examples: so stairno the star, and so aithei the mother
N so stairno thos stairnons
so aithei thos aitheins
A tho stairnon thos stairnons
tho aithein thos aitheins
G thizos stairnons thizo stairnono
thizos aitheins thizo aitheino
D thizai stairnon thaim stairnom
thizai aithein thaim aitheim

Some weak feminine nouns:

so aithei: the mother
so azgo: the ash (cinders, not the tree): azg- > ask- > ash
so baitrei: the bitterness (cf. the adjective baitrs “bitter”)
so balthei: the boldness (<*balths “bold”)
so bairhtei: the brightness (cf. bairhts “bright”)
so brinno: the fever (cf. brinnan “to burn”)
so brunjo: the breastplate (cf. “byrnie”)
so diupei: the depth
so gatwo: the street (cf. German Gasse)
so hauhhairtei: the pride (“high-heartedness”)
so kalbo: the calf so managei: the multitude (“manyness”)
so marei: the sea so mawilo: the young maiden
so mikilei: the greatness
so qino: the woman
so stairno: the star
so swaihro: the mother-in-law
so thaurstei: the thirst
so theihwo: the thunder
so tuggo: the tongue

Feminine strong adjective endings

-os      -a        N
-os      -a        A
-aizo  -aizos  G
-aim -ai         D 

As with the masculines and neuters, the adjective and pronominal endings are evidently related; but note that the -z- element does not occur in the dative singular of the strong adjective, despite thizai, izai in the demonstrative and personal pronouns. The weak feminine adjective declines just like stairno. With the example gutiska razda “Gothic language”:

N       gutiska razda     gutiskos razdos
A        gutiska razda      gutiskos razdos
G      gutiskaizos razdos     gutiskaizo razdo
D gutiskai razdai gutiskaim razdom

N so gutisko razda thos gutiskons razdos
A tho gutiskon razda thos gutiskons razdos
G thizos gutiskons razdos thizo gutiskono razdo
D thizai gutiskon razdai thaim gutiskom razdom


Preterite Present verbs are verbs in which (for complicated reasons involving a very early restructuring of the Proto-Indo-European verbal system) the present tense looks exactly like the preterite of a strong verb. Some of these are “modal” verbs used with an infinitive. For example, from the verb magan “to be able”:
weis magum “we can”     wit magu “we two can”       ik mag “I can”
jus maguth “you can”      jut maguts “you two can”   thu magt “you can”
eis magun “they can”                                                     is mag “he can”
e.g., ik mag saihwan thana menan “I can see the moon.”, or skulun “to owe, to be obliged to, to be about to; used to indicate obligation, but sometimes also futurity, like English “shall”, “should”)

weis skulum      wit skulu      ik skal
jus skuluth        jut skuluts    thu skalt
eis skulun                                is skal

Thu skalt gaggan du fraujin meinamma “you shall (you ought to) go to my lord”
aihan “to have” (g and h are found interchangeably in many of these forms)

weis aigum     wit aigu        ik aih
jus aiguth       jut aiguts      thu aiht
eis aigun                                is aih

thaurban “to need” (cf. sa tharba “the beggar”) (this verb takes an object in the genitive case; you can remember this by thinking of English “to have need of”, but it is usually better translated “to need”)

weis thaurbum      wit thaurbu       ik tharf
jus thaurbuth        jut thaurbuts     thu tharft
eis thaurbun                                      is tharf

kunnan “to know”:

weis kunnum        wit kunnu        ik kann
jus kunnuth          jut kunnuts      thu kant
eis kunnun                                       is kann

witan “to know” (cf. English wit, wot)

weis witum           wit witu          ik wait
jus wituth             jut wituts        thu waist
eis witun                                        is wait

A few more verbs:

driusan, draus, drusun: fall
filhan, falh, fulhun: hide
galeithan, galaith, galithun: go
hwairban, hwarf, hwaurbun: walk (u > au and i > ai before r)
swiltan, swalt, swultun: die
tiuhan, tauh, tauhun: lead (u > au before h)
thliuhan, thlauh, thlauhun: flee (u > au before h)
urreisan, urrais, urrisun: arise
weihan, waih, waihun: fight (i > ai before h)
winnan, wann, wunnun: suffer

And an adjective: silubreins (you can figure it out!)


1-Aithei meina gaf mis bokos seinos.
2-So mawilo draif tho hairda du thizai ahwai.
3-Sa thiudans aih brunjons gultheinos jah hilm silubreinana.
4-Ijos skulun qithan du thaim qinom.
5-Ni kunnuth tho diupein thizos mareins.
6-Si wait tho saurga jah tho kara in saiwalai seinai.
7-Alareiks ist thiudans thizos mikilaizos thiudos thize Gutane.
8-Thiuda meina qam du mis jah qath, “thos stairnons driusand af himinam, jah thata land sigqith in marein!”
9-Frauja theins qath, “Allai bandjans skulun winnan in karkarai.”
10-Thos kalbons swultun in thaim grabam fram thaurstein.
11-Sa gudja kann tho runa thizo boko.

(Answers to this exercise.)

1-I can say many words in the Gothic language.
2-I know the mysteries of the soul.
3-The women hid the treasures in the ditch.
4-The maiden arose and went to her mother and said, “I give you a gift.”
5-She has much grain for the calves.
6-On that day I suffered much care and sorrow, and I fled to her house.
7-They led the calves and the goats to the river, but they did not drink.
8-We walked on the street with the women.
9-Because of (fram) her pride, she cannot know love.
10-Their voices are in my ears.
11-Men and women on earth need love and truth in their hearts.

(Answers to this exercise.)

On to Lesson 6.
Back to Lesson 4.